Compute LCMV source power [1] in a grid of time-frequency windows and display results.

[1] | Dalal et al. Five-dimensional neuroimaging: Localization of the time-frequency dynamics of cortical activity. NeuroImage (2008) vol. 40 (4) pp. 1686-1700 |

```
# Author: Roman Goj <roman.goj@gmail.com>
#
# License: BSD (3-clause)
import mne
from mne import compute_covariance
from mne.datasets import sample
from mne.event import make_fixed_length_events
from mne.beamformer import tf_lcmv
from mne.viz import plot_source_spectrogram
print(__doc__)
data_path = sample.data_path()
raw_fname = data_path + '/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_raw.fif'
noise_fname = data_path + '/MEG/sample/ernoise_raw.fif'
event_fname = data_path + '/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_raw-eve.fif'
fname_fwd = data_path + '/MEG/sample/sample_audvis-meg-eeg-oct-6-fwd.fif'
subjects_dir = data_path + '/subjects'
label_name = 'Aud-lh'
fname_label = data_path + '/MEG/sample/labels/%s.label' % label_name
```

Out:

```
Successfully extracted to: [u'/home/ubuntu/mne_data/MNE-sample-data']
```

Read raw data, preload to allow filtering

```
raw = mne.io.read_raw_fif(raw_fname, preload=True)
raw.info['bads'] = ['MEG 2443'] # 1 bad MEG channel
# Pick a selection of magnetometer channels. A subset of all channels was used
# to speed up the example. For a solution based on all MEG channels use
# meg=True, selection=None and add grad=4000e-13 to the reject dictionary.
# We could do this with a "picks" argument to Epochs and the LCMV functions,
# but here we use raw.pick_types() to save memory.
left_temporal_channels = mne.read_selection('Left-temporal')
raw.pick_types(meg='mag', eeg=False, eog=False, stim=False, exclude='bads',
selection=left_temporal_channels)
reject = dict(mag=4e-12)
# Re-normalize our empty-room projectors, which should be fine after
# subselection
raw.info.normalize_proj()
# Setting time limits for reading epochs. Note that tmin and tmax are set so
# that time-frequency beamforming will be performed for a wider range of time
# points than will later be displayed on the final spectrogram. This ensures
# that all time bins displayed represent an average of an equal number of time
# windows.
tmin, tmax = -0.55, 0.75 # s
tmin_plot, tmax_plot = -0.3, 0.5 # s
# Read epochs. Note that preload is set to False to enable tf_lcmv to read the
# underlying raw object.
# Filtering is then performed on raw data in tf_lcmv and the epochs
# parameters passed here are used to create epochs from filtered data. However,
# reading epochs without preloading means that bad epoch rejection is delayed
# until later. To perform bad epoch rejection based on the reject parameter
# passed here, run epochs.drop_bad(). This is done automatically in
# tf_lcmv to reject bad epochs based on unfiltered data.
event_id = 1
events = mne.read_events(event_fname)
epochs = mne.Epochs(raw, events, event_id, tmin, tmax, proj=True,
baseline=None, preload=False, reject=reject)
# Read empty room noise, preload to allow filtering, and pick subselection
raw_noise = mne.io.read_raw_fif(noise_fname, preload=True)
raw_noise.info['bads'] = ['MEG 2443'] # 1 bad MEG channel
raw_noise.pick_types(meg='mag', eeg=False, eog=False, stim=False,
exclude='bads', selection=left_temporal_channels)
raw_noise.info.normalize_proj()
# Create artificial events for empty room noise data
events_noise = make_fixed_length_events(raw_noise, event_id, duration=1.)
# Create an epochs object using preload=True to reject bad epochs based on
# unfiltered data
epochs_noise = mne.Epochs(raw_noise, events_noise, event_id, tmin, tmax,
proj=True, baseline=None,
preload=True, reject=reject)
# Make sure the number of noise epochs is the same as data epochs
epochs_noise = epochs_noise[:len(epochs.events)]
# Read forward operator
forward = mne.read_forward_solution(fname_fwd)
# Read label
label = mne.read_label(fname_label)
```

Out:

```
Opening raw data file /home/ubuntu/mne_data/MNE-sample-data/MEG/sample/sample_audvis_raw.fif...
Read a total of 3 projection items:
PCA-v1 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v2 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v3 (1 x 102) idle
Range : 25800 ... 192599 = 42.956 ... 320.670 secs
Ready.
Current compensation grade : 0
Reading 0 ... 166799 = 0.000 ... 277.714 secs...
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Opening raw data file /home/ubuntu/mne_data/MNE-sample-data/MEG/sample/ernoise_raw.fif...
Isotrak not found
Read a total of 3 projection items:
PCA-v1 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v2 (1 x 102) idle
PCA-v3 (1 x 102) idle
Range : 19800 ... 85867 = 32.966 ... 142.965 secs
Ready.
Current compensation grade : 0
Reading 0 ... 66067 = 0.000 ... 109.999 secs...
110 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 110 events and 781 original time points ...
1 bad epochs dropped
Reading forward solution from /home/ubuntu/mne_data/MNE-sample-data/MEG/sample/sample_audvis-meg-eeg-oct-6-fwd.fif...
Reading a source space...
Computing patch statistics...
Patch information added...
Distance information added...
[done]
Reading a source space...
Computing patch statistics...
Patch information added...
Distance information added...
[done]
2 source spaces read
Desired named matrix (kind = 3523) not available
Read MEG forward solution (7498 sources, 306 channels, free orientations)
Desired named matrix (kind = 3523) not available
Read EEG forward solution (7498 sources, 60 channels, free orientations)
MEG and EEG forward solutions combined
Source spaces transformed to the forward solution coordinate frame
```

Time-frequency beamforming based on LCMV

```
# Setting frequency bins as in Dalal et al. 2008 (high gamma was subdivided)
freq_bins = [(4, 12), (12, 30), (30, 55), (65, 299)] # Hz
win_lengths = [0.3, 0.2, 0.15, 0.1] # s
# Setting the time step
tstep = 0.05
# Setting the whitened data covariance regularization parameter
data_reg = 0.001
# Subtract evoked response prior to computation?
subtract_evoked = False
# Calculating covariance from empty room noise. To use baseline data as noise
# substitute raw for raw_noise, epochs.events for epochs_noise.events, tmin for
# desired baseline length, and 0 for tmax_plot.
# Note, if using baseline data, the averaged evoked response in the baseline
# period should be flat.
noise_covs = []
for (l_freq, h_freq) in freq_bins:
raw_band = raw_noise.copy()
raw_band.filter(l_freq, h_freq, n_jobs=1, fir_design='firwin')
epochs_band = mne.Epochs(raw_band, epochs_noise.events, event_id,
tmin=tmin_plot, tmax=tmax_plot, baseline=None,
proj=True)
noise_cov = compute_covariance(epochs_band, method='shrunk')
noise_covs.append(noise_cov)
del raw_band # to save memory
# Computing LCMV solutions for time-frequency windows in a label in source
# space for faster computation, use label=None for full solution
stcs = tf_lcmv(epochs, forward, noise_covs, tmin, tmax, tstep, win_lengths,
freq_bins=freq_bins, subtract_evoked=subtract_evoked,
reg=data_reg, label=label)
# Plotting source spectrogram for source with maximum activity.
# Note that tmin and tmax are set to display a time range that is smaller than
# the one for which beamforming estimates were calculated. This ensures that
# all time bins shown are a result of smoothing across an identical number of
# time windows.
plot_source_spectrogram(stcs, freq_bins, tmin=tmin_plot, tmax=tmax_plot,
source_index=None, colorbar=True)
```

Out:

```
Setting up band-pass filter from 4 - 12 Hz
l_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 2.0 Hz
h_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 3.0 Hz
Filter length of 991 samples (1.650 sec) selected
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 481 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Estimating covariance using SHRUNK
Done.
Number of samples used : 34632
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 12 - 30 Hz
l_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 3.0 Hz
h_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 7.5 Hz
Filter length of 661 samples (1.101 sec) selected
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 481 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Estimating covariance using SHRUNK
Done.
Number of samples used : 34632
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 30 - 55 Hz
l_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 7.5 Hz
h_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 13.8 Hz
Filter length of 264 samples (0.440 sec) selected
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 481 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Estimating covariance using SHRUNK
Done.
Number of samples used : 34632
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 65 - 3e+02 Hz
l_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 16.2 Hz
h_trans_bandwidth chosen to be 1.3 Hz
Filter length of 1516 samples (2.524 sec) selected
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 481 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Estimating covariance using SHRUNK
Done.
Number of samples used : 34632
[done]
Loading data for 72 events and 781 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Setting up band-pass filter from 4 - 12 Hz
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 781 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -550 to -250 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -500 to -200 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -450 to -150 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -400 to -100 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -350 to -50 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -300 to 0 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -250 to 49 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -200 to 99 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -150 to 149 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -100 to 199 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -50 to 249 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 0 to 300 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 50 to 350 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 99 to 399 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 150 to 450 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 199 to 499 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 250 to 550 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 300 to 600 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 350 to 649 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 400 to 700 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 449 to 750 ms, in frequency range 4 to 12 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 13032
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 12 - 30 Hz
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 781 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -550 to -350 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -500 to -300 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -450 to -250 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -400 to -200 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -350 to -150 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -300 to -100 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -250 to -49 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -200 to 0 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -150 to 49 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -100 to 99 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -50 to 149 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 0 to 200 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 50 to 250 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 99 to 300 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 150 to 350 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 199 to 399 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 250 to 450 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 300 to 500 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 350 to 550 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 400 to 600 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 449 to 649 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 500 to 700 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 550 to 750 ms, in frequency range 12 to 30 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 8712
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 30 - 55 Hz
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 781 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -550 to -400 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -500 to -350 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -450 to -300 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -400 to -250 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -350 to -200 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -300 to -150 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -250 to -100 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -200 to -50 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -150 to 0 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -100 to 49 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -50 to 99 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 0 to 150 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 50 to 200 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 99 to 249 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 150 to 300 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 199 to 350 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 250 to 400 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 300 to 450 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 350 to 500 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 400 to 550 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 449 to 600 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 500 to 650 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 550 to 700 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 600 to 750 ms, in frequency range 30 to 55 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 6552
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Setting up band-pass filter from 65 - 3e+02 Hz
72 matching events found
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
3 projection items activated
Loading data for 72 events and 781 original time points ...
0 bad epochs dropped
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -550 to -450 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -500 to -400 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -450 to -350 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -400 to -300 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -350 to -250 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -300 to -200 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -250 to -150 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -200 to -100 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -150 to -50 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -100 to 0 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window -50 to 49 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 0 to 100 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 50 to 150 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 99 to 199 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 150 to 250 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 199 to 299 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 250 to 350 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 300 to 400 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 350 to 449 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 400 to 500 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 449 to 549 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 500 to 600 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 550 to 650 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 600 to 700 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 650 to 750 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
Adding a time window to cover last time points
Computing time-frequency LCMV beamformer for time window 650 to 750 ms, in frequency range 65 to 299 Hz
Estimating covariance using EMPIRICAL
Done.
Number of samples used : 4392
[done]
13 out of 366 channels remain after picking
Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = 3)
estimated rank (mag): 10
Setting small MEG eigenvalues to zero.
Not doing PCA for MEG.
Total rank is 10
[done]
```

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 18.352 seconds)